In a thought-provoking new view of infancy, Dr. Karp blends modern science and ancient wisdom to prove that newborns are not really ready for the world when they are born. Through his research and experience, he has developed four basic principles that are crucial for understanding babies…improving their sleep…and, soothing their senses: The Missing 4th Trimester: As odd as it may sound, one of the main reasons babies cry is because they are born three months too soon. The Calming Reflex: The automatic reset switch that can stop a baby’s crying…and boost a baby’s sleep…during the first months of life. The 5 S’s: Five simple steps that trigger the calming reflex (swaddling, side/stomach position, shushing, swinging and sucking). For centuries, parents have tried these methods only to fail because, as with a knee reflex, the calming reflex only works when it is triggered in exactly the right way. The Cuddle Cure: The perfect mix the 5 S’s that can soothe even most colicky infants and add hours to their sleep.